Anaerobic train

Physical exercise intense enough to cause lactate formation

Fox and Haskell formula

Aerobics is a system of physical conditioning that increases the efficiency of the body’s intake of oxygen. This in turn stimulates the cardiovascular system, developing endurance, and reducing body fat. Aerobics offers numerous benefits like increased energy, lower blood pressure and cholesterol, greater suppleness, stronger bones, better posture, and decreased stress levels. To be effective, many professionals recommend that aerobic training include a minimum of three sessions per week, lasting about an hour. For results, the exerciser’s heart rate must be raised to a training level for at least 20 minutes.[1]

Many[by whom?] credit the conception of aerobics to United States physician, Kenneth H. Cooper. Cooper popularized the idea in his books Aerobics (1968) and The Aerobics Way (1977). He incorporated a system that uses point charts to rate the aerobic value of various exercises for different age-groups. As individuals progressively upgrade the quantity and quality of their exercise, they can gauge the improvement in their physical condition through the point system. Today aerobics is commonly referred to as group fitness.[2]

Anaerobic exercise may be used by personal trainers to help their client take steps to building endurance, as well as to build muscle strength and power. Anaerobic exercises coupled with aerobic exercises provide health benefits for those diagnosed with diabetes.[3][4]



Anaerobic metabolism is a natural part of metabolic energy expenditure.[5] Fast twitch muscle (as compared to slow twitch muscle) operates using anaerobic metabolic systems, such that any use of fast twitch muscle fibers leads to increased anaerobic energy expenditure. Intense exercise lasting upwards of about four minutes (e.g. a mile race) may still have a considerable anaerobic energy expenditure component. High-intensity interval training, although based on aerobic exercises like running, cycling and rowing, effectively becomes anaerobic when performed in excess of 90% maximum heart rate. Anaerobic energy expenditure is difficult to accurately quantify, although several reasonable methods[which?] that estimate the anaerobic component of exercise are available.[6][7][8]

In contrast, aerobic exercise includes lower intensity activities performed for longer periods of time. Activities such as walking, long slow runs, rowing, and cycling require a great deal of oxygen to generate the energy needed for prolonged exercise (i.e., aerobic energy expenditure). In sports requiring repeated short bursts of exercise the anaerobic system enables muscles to recover for the next burst. Therefore, the training for many sports demand that both energy-producing systems be developed.

As muscles contract, Calcium ions release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum by release channels. These channels close and calcium pumps open to relax muscles. After extended exercise the release channels can begin to leak and cause for muscle fatigue.

The two systems of anaerobic energy systems are:

  • High energy phosphates, adenosine triphosphate and creatine phosphate – called “alactic anaerobic”.[9]
  • Anaerobic glycolysis – called “lactic anaerobic”.[9]
  • High energy phosphates are stored in limited quantities within muscle cells. Anaerobic glycolysis exclusively uses glucose (and glycogen) as a fuel in the absence of oxygen, or more specifically when ATP is needed at rates that exceed those provided by aerobic metabolism. The consequence of such rapid glucose breakdown is the formation of lactic acid (or more appropriately, its conjugate base lactate at biological pH levels). Physical activities that last up to about thirty seconds rely primarily on the former, ATP-CP phosphagen system. Beyond this time both aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis-based metabolic systems begin to predominate.

    The by-product of anaerobic glycolysis—lactate—has traditionally been thought to be detrimental to muscle function.[10] However, this appears likely only when lactate levels are very high. Elevated lactate levels are only one of many changes that occur within and around muscle cells during intense exercise that can lead to fatigue. Fatigue, that is muscle failure, is a complex subject.[further explanation needed] Elevated muscle and blood lactate concentrations are a natural consequence of any physical exertion. The effectiveness of anaerobic activity can be improved through training.[11]

    Anaerobic exercise increases basal metabolic rate (BMR)


    Anaerobic exercise is an intense workout while aerobic exercise is a long endurance workout. Anaerobic means with “no oxygen”;[12] which forces the body to use glucose in order to perform the movement. Anaerobic workouts have many benefits and can be more reasonable to do on a daily basis due to the time required. Anaerobic workouts can be performed with body weight at home.[13]

    See also[edit]


  • ^
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Aerobics.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 26 Aug. 2014,
  • ^ The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Aerobics.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 26 Aug. 2014,
  • ^ “Aerobic training programs and glycemic control in diabetic children in relation to exercise frequency” (PDF). The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 51: 393–400 – via Google cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background-image:url(“//”);background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//”);background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background-image:url(“//”);background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//”);background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background-image:url(“//”);background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//”);background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:9px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background-image:url(“//”);background-image:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url(“//”);background-repeat:no-repeat;background-size:12px;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}
  • ^ “Influence of combined aerobic and resistance training on metabolic control, cardiovascular fitness and quality of life in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial”. Sage Journals – Clinical Rehabilitation. 25: 349–359. 2011 – via PubMed.
  • ^ Scott, Christopher B (June 2005). “Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis”. Nutrition & Metabolism. 14. 2 (1): 14. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-2-14. PMC 1182393. PMID 15958171.
  • ^ Medbo, JI; Mohn, AC; Tabata, I; Bahr, R; Vaage, O; Sejersted, OM (January 1988). “Anaerobic capacity determined by maximal accumulated O2 deficit”. Journal of Applied Physiology. 64 (1): 50–60. doi:10.1152/jappl.1988.64.1.50. PMID 3356666.
  • ^ Di Prampero, PE; G. Ferretti (Dec 1, 1999). “The energetics of anaerobic muscle metabolism” (PDF). Respiration Physiology. 118 (2–3): 103–115. CiteSeerX doi:10.1016/s0034-5687(99)00083-3. PMID 10647856. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-27.
  • ^ Scott, Christopher B (2008). A Primer for the Exercise and Nutrition Sciences: Thermodynamics, Bioenergetics, Metabolism. Humana Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-1-60327-382-4.
  • ^ a b Robert Donatelli, Sports-specific Rehabilitation, p. 40, Elsevier, 2007 ISBN 0443066426.
  • ^ Westerblad, Håkan (1 February 2002). “Muscle Fatigue: Lactic Acid or Inorganic Phosphate the Major Cause?”. Physiology. 17 (1): 17–21. doi:10.1152/physiologyonline.2002.17.1.17. PMID 11821531.
  • ^ McMahon, Thomas A (1984). Muscles, Reflexes, and Locomotion. Princeton University Press. pp. 37–51. ISBN 978-0-691-02376-2.
  • ^
  • ^ “Want to Really Feel the Burn? Try Anaerobic Exercise!”. Healthline. Retrieved 2020-02-28.
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